Answer : Switch:
Switches operate at Layer 2 Data Link Layer
Forward / Filter decision using MAC address Loop Avoidance
Breakup collision domains
Switches create separate collision domains but a single broadcast domain
Hub operates at Layer 1 Physical Layer No Filtering
Hub creates single collision domain and single broadcast domain Make forwarding to all the ports when signal is arrived
2. What is PING utility?
PING – Packet Internet Gopher
A utility that verifies connections to one or more remote hosts. The ping command uses the ICMP echo request and echo reply packets to determine whether a particular IP system on a network is functional. Ping is useful for diagnosing IP network or router failures.
3. What is a VLAN? What does VLAN provide?
VLAN – Virtual Local Area Network
Vlan is a logical grouping or segmenting a network connected to administratively defined ports on a switch, they provide Broadcast control, Security and Flexibility.
4. What is Subnetting? Why is it used?
Used in IP Networks to break up larger networks into smaller subnetworks. It is used to reduce network traffic, Optimized network performance, and simplify management i.e. to identify and isolate network problems.
5. Difference between the Communication and Transmission?
Communication is the process of sending and receiving data by means of a data cable that is connected externally.
Transmission means the transfer of data from the source to the destination.
6. What is RAID in ccna?
A method used to standardize and categorize fau ms. RAID
levels provide various mixes of performance, relia e servers provide three of the RAID levels: Level 0 (striping), Level 1 (mirroring), and Level 5 (striping & parity).
7. What are 10Base2, 10Base5 and 10BaseT Ethernet LANs?
10Base2 an Ethernet term meaning a maximum transfer rate of 10 Megabits per second that uses baseband signaling, with a contiguous cable segment length of 200 meters (185mts). Known as Thinnet.
10Base5 an Ethernet term meaning a maximum transfer rate of 10 Megabits per second that uses baseband signaling, with a contiguous cable segment length of 500 meters. Known as Thicknet.
10BaseT an Ethernet term meaning a maximum transfer rate of 10 Megabits per second that uses two pairs of twistedpair baseband signaling, with a contiguous cable segment length of 100 meters.
8. What are the two types of Transmission Technology available in ccna?
Two types of Transmission Technology available in ccna are Point – to – Point and Broadcast
9. What is pointtopoint protocol in ccna?
An industry STANDARD SUITE of protocols for the use of pointtopoint links to transport multiprotocol datagrams.
10. What are the possible ways of data exchange in ccna?
Possible ways of data exchange in ccna are Simplex
11. What is difference between Baseband and Broadband Transmission in ccna?
In a baseband transmission, the entire bandwidth of the cable is consumed by a single signal.
In broadband transmission, signals are sent on multiple frequencies, allowing multiple signals to be sent simultaneously.
12. What is Protocol Data Unit in ccna?
The processes at each layer of the OSI model. LayersPDU
TransportSegments NetworkPackets/Datagrams Data LinkFrames
13. What are major types of Networks and explain?
Computers can act as both servers sharing resources and as clients using the resources.
Provide centralized control of network resources and rely on server computers to provide security and network administration
14. What is Passive Topology in ccna?
When the computers on the network simply listen and receive the signal, they are referred to as passive because they don’t amplify the signal in any way.
15. What is the Mesh Network?
A network in which there are multiple network links between computers to provide multiple paths for data to travel.
16. How network Gateway is different from Routers?
Answer : Gateway
A device connected to multiple physical TCP/IP networks capable of routing or delivering IP packets between them.
It’s a layer 3 device that connects 2 different networks and routes packets of data from one network to another. It breaks up Broadcast domain as well as Collision Domain.
17. What is the network Brouter?
It’s a Hybrid device that combines the features of both bridges and routers.
18. What is the network Subnet?
A subnet is the subdivision of an IP network.
19. What is the Frame relay, in which layer it comes?
Frame relay is an industry standard, shared access, switched Data Link Layer encapsulation that services multiple virtual circuits and protocols between connected mechanism.
Frame relay is a packetswitched technology.
20. What is the Terminal Emulation, in which layer it comes?
The use of software, installed on PC or LAN server, that allows the PC to function as if it were dumb terminal directly attached to a particular type of mainframe.
Telnet is also called as terminal emulation. It belongs to application layer.
21. What is the Beaconing?
An FDDI frame or Token Ring frame that points to serious problem with the ring, such as a broken cable. The beacon frame carries the address of the station thought to be down.
22. What are the NetBIOS and NetBEUI?
NetBIOS – Network Basic Input / Output System
An applicationprogramming interface (API) that can be used by programs on a local area network (LAN). NetBIOS provides programs with a uniform set of commands for requesting the lowerlevel services required to manage names, conduct sessions, and send datagrams between nodes on a network.
NetBEUI – NetBIOS Extended User Interface
An improved version of the NetBIOS protocol, a network protocol native to Microsoft Networking. It is usually used in small, departmentsize local area networks (LANs) of 1 to 200 clients. It can use Token Ring source routing as its only method of routing.
23. What is the Cladding?
A layer of a glass surrounding the center fiber of glass inside a fiberoptic cable.
24. What is the Attenuation?
In communication weakening or loss of signal energy, typically caused by distance.
25. What is the MAC address?
The address for a device as it is identified at the Media Access Control (MAC) layer in the network architecture. MAC address is usually stored in ROM on the network adapter card and is unique.
26. What is the ICMP protocol?
ICMP – Internet Control Message Protocol
It is a Network Layer Internet protocol, which can report errors and status information. We can use the ping command to send ICMP echo request messages and record the receipt of ICMP echo reply messages. With these messages, we can detect network or host communication failures and troubleshoot common TCP/IP connectivity problems.
27. What is the difference between ARP and RARP?
ARP – Address Resolution Protocol
The protocol that traces IP addresses to MAC addresses.
RARP – Reverse Address Resolution Protocol
The protocol within the TCP/IP stack that maps MAC addresses to IP addresses.
28. What is the difference between TFTP and FTP application layer protocols?
TFTP – Trivial File Transfer Protocol
A stripped down version of FTP, easy to use and fast. TFTP has no Directory browsing, no Authentication and insecure it can only send and receive files.
FTP – File Transfer Protocol
The TCP/IP protocol used for transmitting files between network nodes. FTP allows access to both Directories and files, manipulating directories, typing file contents and copying files between hosts.
29. Explain 543 rule?
In a Ethernet network, between any two points on the network, there can be no more than five network segments or four repeaters, and of those five segments only three of segments can be populated.
30. What is the MAU?
MAU – Multistation Access Unit
31. What is the difference between routable and non routable protocols?
Routable protocols can work with a router and can be used to build large networks. NonRoutable protocols are designed to work on small, local networks and cannot be used with a router.
32. What is the logical link control?
One of two sublayers of the data link layer of OSI reference model, as defined by the IEEE 802 standard. This sublayer is responsible for error detection but not correction, flow control and framing.
33. What is the Virtual Channel?
A logical circuit that is created by Virtual channel links. It carries data between two endpoints in a network.
The other name for Virtual Channel is Virtual Circuit.
34. What is the Virtual Path?
Along any transmission path from a given source to a given destination, a group of virtual circuits can be grouped together into what is called path.
35. What is the multicast routing?
Sending a message to a group multicast address is called multicasting, and its routing algorithm is called multicast routing.
36. What is the IGP (Interior Gateway Protocol)?
Any protocol used by an internetwork to exchange routing data within an autonomous system. E.g. RIP, IGRP and OSPF.
37. What is OSI?
Open System Interconnection. t was first name of 7 Layer
38. What is the default size of Frame?
39. Which layer are called upper layer?
a) Application Layer 7
b) Presentation Layer – 6
c) Session Layer – 5
40. Tell me How many reserve ports?
0 – 1023
41. Which decision called socket base?
IP plus port (IP on layer 3 and port on Layer 4 – In Encapsulation, socket base decision on Network Layer Layer 3)
42. Do you know How many types of Data?
Voice, video, text
43. What is segmentation and fragmentation?
To divide data in pieces is called segmentation and divide segmentation in pieces called Fragmentation.
44. Which layer called error detection layer?
Data link layer
45. What is FCS?
Frame Check Sequence
CRC (Cyclic Redundancy Check) algorithm runs in switch that called FCS (Frame Check Sequence)
46. What is Encapsulation and Deencapsulation?
To send data called encapsulation and receive data called Deencapsulation.
47. What is BIA?
Burn in Address other name is MAC address
48. What is Size of IPv4 MAC Address?
Answer : 48 Bits
49. Why MAC address called Physical address?
Because it’s not changeable
50. Who controls MAC address uniqueness and how?
IEEE (Institute of Electrical Electronics and Engineering) Controls its uniqueness. They divide 48 bits MAC address in two parts. (allindiajobs.in)
First 24 bits part called OUI (Organizational unique identifier) and other 24 bits are device code.
51. How we can see MAC address from DOS Prompt?
Answer : ipconfig/all
52. Why IP address called logical address?
Private IP called logical address because they are change able.
53. What is the size of IPV4?
Answer : 32 bits
54. What is Syntax of IPV4?
Answer : DOT
55. How many types of IPS?
Three Types of IP 1 Public
3 Special IP
56. What are the ranges of private IPS?
A Class = 10.0.0.0 – 10.0.0.255
B Class = 172.16.0.0 – 172.31.0.0
C Class = 192.168.0.0 – 192.168.0.255
57. What is the difference between bus topology and HUB?
Hub is Centralized device ( series ) .Bus topology is Decentralized device (in parallel)
58. Is hub intelligent device?
No; because it not use header
59. Which protocol switch use for filling its MACTable?
ARP – Address Resolution Protocol
60. What is CAM?
Content Address Memory. its another name of MAC address table.
61. Which type for communication switch do?
In case of any new event switch do broadcast, after that always do Unicast.
62. If line down and protocol also down; in this case which layer move problem?
Physical Layer – Layer 1
63. If line up, but protocol down which layer should be troubleshot?
Data link problem – Layer 2